Two PostgreSQL Sequence Misconceptions

With Examples!

Some constructs seem more powerful than the promises they make.

PostgreSQL sequences are like that. Many assume it offers stronger properties than it can deliver.

They trust them to be the grail of SQL ordering, the one-size-fits-all of strict serializability. However, there is a good reason Amazon spent design time on vector clocks in Dynamo, Google invested significantly into Chubby, then Percolator’s timestamp oracle, then Spanner’s expensive, atomic-clock-based TrueTime; why Twitter built Snowflake, and so many others built custom timestamp systems.

  1. Strict serializability is hard to achieve, especially in a distributed system, but even in a centralized system with the possibility of failure.
  2. Developers assume the system is strict-serializable, but it usually is not.
  3. When a system provides timestamps, developers will use those as if they were monotonically strictly increasing atomically throughout the distributed system, but they often are not, which causes subtle bugs.

The problem space

To design your system’s properties right, it is often useful or necessary to determine the order in which events happened. Ideally, you wish for the “wall clock” order (looking at your watch), although instantaneity gets tricky when events occur at a distance, even within the same motherboard, but especially across a datacenter, or between cities.

At the very least, you want to reason about causal ordering: when that event happened, did it already see this other event?

A nice property to have, even for a single centralized database, is to give a monotonically increasing identifier for each row. Most PostgreSQL users rely on the SERIAL type for that – a sequence. Each insertion will call nextval() and store an increasing value.

What you implicitly want is to list rows by insertion order, Your mental model is that each insertion happens at a set “wall clock” time. A first insertion will happen at T0 and set the identifier 1, the next one happens at T1 and get number 2, and so on. Therefore, you expect a row with ID N to have causally been inserted after a row with ID M < N.

Operational order is a consistency constraint strongly associated with isolation levels. A PostgreSQL database can handle multiple simultaneous operations.

(Side note: I could be talking about threads and locks, but I will not, because those are just tools to achieve properties. PostgreSQL may switch tools to better meet a given promise (they did so with the serializable level in 2011), but the promise won’t change.)

By default, it promises Read Committed isolation: a transaction can witness the effects of all transactions that commit “before” it does (but not those that have not committed yet). Their commits are therefore causally ordered by commit time.

However, nothing else within a transaction has any causal promise with respect to other transactions. The same SELECT can yield different values; simultaneous insertions can happen either before, after, or anything in between, your own insertion.

The highest isolation level PostgreSQL offers is Serializable isolation: all transactions are causally ordered; from BEGIN to COMMIT. Of course, transactions still execute in parallel; but the database makes sure that everything that a transaction witnesses can be explained by executing all its statements either after all statements of another transaction, or before all of them. It won’t see a changing state within the execution of the transaction.

(By the way, PostgreSQL only achieved serializability in 2011, when they released version 9.1 with support for predicate locks. It is hard.)

Having a causal order does not mean that this order follows real time: one insertion may complete at 9:30am after (in causal order) another that completes later at 10:40am. If you want the additional property that the order is consistent with wall clock time, you want Strict Serializability.

However, PostgreSQL makes no claim of Strict Serializability.

Given all this, sequences probably feel much weaker than you initially thought.

You want them to give a continuous set of numbers, but a sequence can yield values with gaps (1 2 4).

You want them to give a causal order (2 was inserted before 3), but it can yield values out of order (1 3 2).

All a sequence promises is to give values that have an order. Not a continuous order, nor a time order.

Let’s demonstrate both.


Let’s create a table with a SERIAL identifier. For the purpose of showing things going right, let’s insert a row.

SELECT * FROM orders;
(1 row)

Now comes the gap.


Since we rolled back, nothing happened – or did it?

Let’s now insert another row.

SELECT * FROM orders;
(2 rows)

Oops! Despite the rollback, the sequence was incremented without being reverted. Now, there is a gap.

This is not a PostgreSQL bug per se: the way sequences are stored, it just does not keep the information necessary to undo the nextval() without potentially breaking other operations.

Let’s now break the other assumption.

Order violation

First, a table with a sequence and a timestamp:

CREATE TABLE orders (id SERIAL, created_at TIMESTAMPTZ);

Let’s set up two concurrent connections to the database. Each will have the same instructions. I started the first one yesterday:

-- Connection 1

I launch the second one today:

-- Connection 2
INSERT INTO orders (created_at) VALUES (NOW());

Let’s go back to the first one:

-- Connection 1
INSERT INTO orders (created_at) VALUES (NOW());

Simple enough. But we actually just got the order violation:

SELECT * FROM orders ORDER BY created_at;
 id |          created_at           
  2 | 2019-09-04 21:10:38.392352+02
  1 | 2019-09-05 08:19:34.423947+02

The order of the sequence does not follow creation order.

From then on, developers may write some queries ordering by ID, and some ordering by timestamp, expecting an identical order. That incorrect assumption may break their business logic.

Lest you turn your heart to another false god, that behavior remains the same with serializable transactions.

Are we doomed?


Sure, the systems we use have weak assumptions. But that is true at every level. The nice thing about the world is that you can combine weak things to make strong things. Pure iron is ductile, and carbon is brittle, but their alloy is steel.

For instance, you can get the best of both worlds, causal order and “wall clock” timestamps, by having a TIMESTAMPTZ field, only inserting rows within serializable transactions, and setting the created_at field to now, or after the latest insertion:

INSERT INTO orders (created_at)
SELECT GREATEST(NOW(), MAX(created_at) + INTERVAL '1 microsecond') FROM orders;

Indeed, PostgreSQL’s TIMESTAMPTZ has a precision up to the microsecond. You don’t want to have conflicts in your created_at (otherwise you could not determine causal order between the conflicting rows), so you add a microsecond to the current time if there is a conflict.

However, here, concurrent operations are likely to fail, as we acquire a (non-blocking) SIReadLock on the whole table (what the documentation calls a relation lock):

SELECT l.mode, l.relation::regclass,, l.tuple, substring(a.query from 0 for 19)
FROM pg_stat_activity a JOIN pg_locks l ON =
WHERE l.relation::regclass::text LIKE 'orders%'
  AND datname = current_database()
  AND granted
ORDER BY a.query_start;
       mode       | relation | page | tuple |     substring
 SIReadLock       | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders
 RowExclusiveLock | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders
 AccessShareLock  | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders

The reason for that is that we perform a slow Seq Scan in this trivial example, as the EXPLAIN proves.

                                  QUERY PLAN
 Insert on orders  (cost=38.25..38.28 rows=1 width=8)
   ->  Aggregate  (cost=38.25..38.27 rows=1 width=8)
         ->  Seq Scan on orders orders_1  (cost=0.00..32.60 rows=2260 width=8)

With an index, concurrent operations are much more likely to work:

CREATE INDEX created_at_idx ON orders (created_at);

We then only take a tuple lock on the table:

       mode       | relation | page | tuple |     substring      
 SIReadLock       | orders   |    0 |     5 | INSERT INTO orders
 RowExclusiveLock | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders
 AccessShareLock  | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders

However, the tuple in question is the latest row in the table. Any two concurrent insertions will definitely read from the same one: the one with the latest created_at. Therefore, only one of concurrent insertion will succeed; the others will need to be retried until they do too.

Subset Ordering

In cases where you only need a unique ordering for a subset of rows based on another field, you can set a combined index with that other field:

  account_id UUID DEFAULT gen_random_uuid(),
  created_at TIMESTAMPTZ);
CREATE INDEX account_created_at_idx ON orders (account_id, created_at DESC);

Then the query planner goes through the account index:

INSERT INTO orders (account_id, created_at)
SELECT account_id, GREATEST(NOW(), created_at + INTERVAL '1 microsecond')
FROM orders WHERE account_id = '9c99bef6-a05a-48c4-bba3-6080a6ce4f2e'::uuid
ORDER BY created_at DESC LIMIT 1
                                                      QUERY PLAN
 Insert on orders  (cost=0.15..3.69 rows=1 width=24)
   ->  Subquery Scan on "*SELECT*"  (cost=0.15..3.69 rows=1 width=24)
         ->  Limit  (cost=0.15..3.68 rows=1 width=32)
               ->  Index Only Scan using account_created_at_idx on orders orders_1  (cost=0.15..28.35 rows=8 width=32)
                     Index Cond: (account_id = '9c99bef6-a05a-48c4-bba3-6080a6ce4f2e'::uuid)

And concurrent insertions on different accounts work:

       mode       | relation | page | tuple |     substring
 SIReadLock       | orders   |    0 |     1 | INSERT INTO orders
 RowExclusiveLock | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders
 AccessShareLock  | orders   |      |       | INSERT INTO orders
 SIReadLock       | orders   |    0 |     2 | COMMIT;

(The first three row are from one not-finished transaction on account 1, the last is from a finished one on account 2.)